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INCOTERMS REFERENCE GUIDE

 

INCOTERMS REFERENCE GUIDE 

January 1, 2020, Incoterms® are used in both international and domestic contracts. They clearly define the buyer and seller's responsibilities, risks, and costs. They are reviewed and updated every ten years and the new edition is now available. 

What are Incoterms? 

Put simply, Incoterms are the user terms that the buyer and seller of merchandise both agree to during international transactions. These rules are accepted by governments and legal authorities around the world. It is essential to know the Incoterms as they are a vital part of International Trade as they clearly state which tasks, costs and risks are associated with the buyer and the seller. 

The Incoterm states when the seller’s costs and risks are transferred onto the buyer.  It’s also important to understand that not all rules apply in all cases.  Some of them include any mode or modes of transport.  Transport by all modes of transport (road, rail, air and sea) covers FCA, CPT, CIP, DAP, DPU (replaces DAT) and DDP.  Sea/Inland waterway transport (Sea) covers FAS, FOB, CFR and CIF, which we explain below. 

Why are Incoterms vital in International Trade? 

Incoterms are referred to as International Commercial Terms.  They are a set of rules published by the ICC, which relate to International Commercial Law.  According to the ICC, Incoterm Rules, provide internationally accepted definitions and rules of interpretation for most common commercial terms used in contracts for the sale of goods. 

All International purchases will be processed on an agreed Incoterm to define which party legally incurs costs and risks.  Incoterms will be clearly stated on correct shipping documents. 

These are a summary of Incoterms 2020. 

EXW – Ex-Works or Ex-Warehouse 

  • Ex works is when the seller places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or at another named place (i.e., works, factory, warehouse, etc.). 
  • The seller does not need to load the goods on any collecting vehicle. Nor does it need to clear them for export, where such clearance is applicable. 

FCA – Free Carrier 

  • The seller delivers the goods to the carrier or another person nominated by the buyer at the seller’s premises or another named place. 
  • The parties are well advised to specify as explicitly as possible the point within the named place of delivery, as the risk passes to the buyer at that point. 

FAS – Free Alongside Ship 

  • The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel (e.g., on a quay or a barge) nominated by the buyer at the named port of shipment. 
  • The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the products are alongside the ship.  The buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards. 

FOB – Free on Board 

  • The seller delivers the goods on board the vessel nominated by the buyer at the named port of shipment or procures the goods already so delivered. 
  • The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the products are on board the vessel.  The buyer bears all costs from that moment onwards. 

CFR – Cost and Freight 

  • The seller delivers the goods on board the vessel or procures the goods already so delivered. 
  • The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the products are on board the vessel. 
  • The seller must contract for and pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination. 

CIF – Cost, Insurance and Freight 

  • The seller delivers the goods on board the vessel or procures the goods already so delivered. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the products are on the ship. 
  • The seller must contract for and pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination. 
  • The seller also contracts for insurance cover against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. 
  • The buyer should note that under CIF the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. Should the buyer wish to have more insurance protection, it will need either to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make its own extra insurance arrangements. 

CPT – Carriage Paid To 

  • The seller delivers the goods to the carrier or another person nominated by the seller at an agreed place (if any such site is agreed between parties). 
  • The seller must contract for and pay the costs of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named place of destination. 

CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid To 

  • The seller has the same responsibilities as CPT, but they also contract for insurance cover against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. 
  • The buyer should note that under CIP the seller is required to obtain insurance only on minimum cover. Should the buyer wish to have more insurance protection, it will need either to agree as much expressly with the seller or to make its own extra insurance arrangements. 

DAP – Delivered at Place 

  • The seller delivers when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport ready for unloading at the named place of destination. 
  • The seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to the named place. 

DPU – Delivered at Place Unloaded (replaces Incoterm® 2010 DAT) 

  • DPU replaces the former Incoterm® DAT (Delivered at Terminal).  The seller delivers when the goods, once unloaded are placed at the disposal of the buyer at a named place of destination. 
  • The seller bears all risks involved in bringing the goods to, and unloading them at the named place of destination. 

DDP – Delivered Duty Paid 

  • The seller delivers the goods when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer, cleared for import on the arriving means of transport ready for unloading at the named place of destination. 
  • The seller bears all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the place of destination

They must clear the products not only for export but also for import, to pay any duty for both export and import and to carry out all customs formalities. 

"Not sure which incoterm is correct for you, contact ICLS and we can advise you, we make the customs clearance process hassle free, leaving you to concentrate on your business"

Phone IRL  00353 (0) 94 9014077 UK 0044 28 203 60062 

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